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Winslow explains that Tisquantum convinced locals that he had the ability to influence the English toward peace or war and that he frequently extorted Natives by claiming that the settlers were about to kill them in order "that thereby hee might get gifts to himself to work their peace …" .
Bradford's account agrees with Winslow's to this point, and he also explains where the information came from: "by the former passages, and other things of like nature",  evidently referring to rumors Hobomok said he heard in the woods.
Winslow goes much further in his charge, however, claiming that Tisquantum intended to sabotage the peace with Massasoit by false claims of Massasoit aggression "hoping whilest things were hot in the heat of bloud, to provoke us to march into his Country against him, whereby he hoped to kindle such a flame as would not easily be quenched, and hoping if that blocke were once removed, there were no other betweene him and honour" which he preferred over life and peace.
What he referred to was their cache of gunpowder. Captain Standish and his men eventually did go to the Massachuset and returned with a "good store of Trade".
On their return, they saw that Massasoit was there and he was displaying his anger against Tisquantum. Bradford did his best to appease him, and he eventually departed.
No long afterward, however, he sent a messenger demanding that Tisquantum is put to death. Bradford responded that although Tisquantum "deserved to die both in respect of him [Massasoit] and us", but said that Tisquantum was too useful to the settlers because otherwise, he had no one to translate.
Not long afterward, the same messenger returned, this time with "divers others", demanding Tisquantum. They argued that Tisquantum being a subject of Massasoit, was subject, pursuant to the first article of the Peace Treaty, to the sachem's demand, in effect, rendition.
They further argued that if Bradford would not produce pursuant to the Treaty, Massasoit had sent many beavers' skins to induce his consent.
Finally, if Bradford still would not release him to them, the messenger had brought Massasoit's own knife by which Bradford himself could cut off Tisquantum's head and hands to be returned with the messenger.
Bradford avoided the question of Massasoit's right under the treaty [u] but refused the beaver pelts saying that "It was not the manner of the English to sell men's lives at a price …" The governor called Tisquantum who had promised not to flee , who denied the charges and ascribed them to Hobomok's desire for his downfall.
He nonetheless offered to abide by Bradford's decision. Bradford was "ready to deliver him into the hands of his Executioners" but at that instance, a boat passed before the town in the harbor.
Fearing that it might be the French, Bradford said he had to first identify the ship before dealing with the demand. The messenger and his companions, however, "mad with rage, and impatient at delay" left "in great heat".
The ship the English saw pass before the town was not French, but rather a shallop from the Sparrow , a shipping vessel sponsored by Thomas Weston and one other of the Plymouth settlement's sponsors, which was plying the eastern fishing grounds.
He asked the Plymouth colony, however, to house and feed these newcomers, provide them with seed stock and ironically salt, until he was able to send the salt pan to them.
He requested that the settlers entertain them in their houses so that they could go out and cut down timber to lade the ship quickly so as not to delay its departure.
Winslow described the dire straits. They now were without bread "the want whereof much abated the strength and the flesh of some, and swelled others".
Had it not been for shellfish which they could catch by hand, they would have perished. Weston urged the settlers to ratify the decision; only then might the London merchants send them further support, although what motivation they would then have he did not explain.
John Huddleston, who was unknown to them but captained a fishing ship that had returned from Virginia to the Maine fishing grounds, advised his "good friends at Plymouth" of the massacre in the Jamestown settlements by the Powhatan in which he said had been killed.
He warned them: "Happy is he whom other men's harms doth make to beware. Sending a return for this kindness, they might also seek fish or other provisions from the fishermen.
Winslow and a crew were selected to make the voyage to Maine, miles away, to a place they had never been.
Even though this was not as much as Winslow hoped, it was enough to keep them going until the harvest. When Winslow returned, the threat they felt had to be addressed.
The general anxiety aroused by Huddleston's letter was heightened by the increasingly hostile taunts they learned of. Surrounding villagers were "glorying in our weaknesse", and the English heard threats about how "easie it would be ere long to cut us off".
Even Massasoit turned cool towards the English, and could not be counted on to tamp down this rising hostility. So they decided to build a fort on burying hill in town.
And just as they did when building the palisade, the men had to cut down trees, haul them from the forest and up the hill and construct the fortified building, all with inadequate nutrition and at the neglect of dressing their crops.
They might have thought they reached the end of their problems, but in June the settlers saw two more vessels arrive, carrying 60 additional mouths to feed.
These were the passengers that Weston had written would be unloaded from the vessel going on to Virginia. That vessel also carried more distressing news.
Weston informed the governor that he was no longer a part of the company sponsoring the Plymouth settlement. The settlers he sent just now, and requested the Plymouth settlement to house and feed, were for his own enterprise.
The "sixty lusty men" would not work for the benefit of Plymouth; in fact he had obtained a patent and as soon as they were ready they would settle an area in Massachusetts Bay.
Other letters also were brought. The other venturers in London explained that they had bought out Weston, and everyone was better off without him.
Weston, who saw the letter before it was sent, advised the settlers to break off from the remaining merchants, and as a sign of good faith delivered a quantity of bread and cod to them.
Although, as Bradford noted in the margin, he "left not his own men a bite of bread. Finally Robert Cushman sent a letter advising that Weston's men "are no men for us; wherefore I prey you entertain them not"; he also advised the Plymouth Separatists not to trade with them or loan them anything except on strict collateral.
I pray you therefore signify to Squanto that they are a distinct body from us, and we have nothing to do with them, neither must be blamed for their faults, much less can warrant their fidelity.
Weston's men, "stout knaves" in the words of Thomas Morton,  were roustabouts collected for adventure  and they scandalized the mostly strictly religious villagers of Plymouth.
Worse, they stole the colony's corn, wandering into the fields and snatching the green ears for themselves. The harvest again proved disappointing, so that it appeared that "famine must still ensue, the next year also" for lack of seed.
And they could not even trade for staples because their supply of items the Natives sought had been exhausted. But not long after, even there they plagued Plymouth, who heard, from Natives once friendly with them, that Weston's settlers were stealing their corn and committing other abuses.
The ship had a cargo of knives, beads and other items prized by Natives, but seeing the desperation of the colonists the captain drove a hard bargain: He required them to buy a large lot, charged them double their price and valued their beaver pelts at 3s.
The Charity returned from Virginia at the end of September—beginning of October. It proceeded on to England, leaving the Wessagusset settlers well provisioned.
The Swan was left for their use as well. They proposed equal division of the proceeds with payment for their share of the goods traded to await arrival of Weston.
Bradford assumed they had burned through their provisions. Bradford agreed and proposed an expedition southward of the Cape.
Winslow wrote that Tisquantum and Massasoit had "wrought" a peace although he doesn't explain how this came about.
With Tisquantum as guide, they might find the passage among the Monomoy Shoals to Nantucket Sound ; [x] Tisquantum had advised them he twice sailed through the shoals, once on an English and once on a French vessel.
When in Plymouth Richard Green, Weston's brother-in-law and temporary governor of the colony, died. After his burial and receiving directions to proceed from the succeeding governor of Wessagusset, Standish was appointed leader but twice the voyage was turned back by violent winds.
On the second attempt, Standish fell ill. On his return Bradford himself took charge of the enterprise. When they reached the shoals, Tisquantum piloted the vessel, but the master of the vessel did not trust the directions and bore up.
Tisquantum directed him through a narrow passage, and they were able to harbor near Mamamoycke now Chatham. That night Bradford went ashore with a few others, Tisquantum acting as translator and facilitator.
Not having seen any of these Englishmen before, the Natives were initially reluctant. But Tisquantum coaxed them and they provided a plentiful meal of venison and other victuals.
They were reluctant to allow the English to see their homes, but when Bradford showed his intention to stay on shore, they invited him to their shelters, having first removed all their belongings.
As long as the English stayed, the Natives would disappear "bag and baggage" whenever their possessions were seen. Eventually Tisquantum persuaded them to trade and as a result, the settlers obtained eight hogsheads of corn and beans.
The villagers also told them that they had seen vessels "of good burthen" pass through the shoals. And so, with Tisquantum feeling confident, the English were prepared to make another attempt.
But suddenly Tisquantum became ill and died. The sickness seems to have greatly shaken Bradford, for they lingered there for several days before he died.
Bradford described his death in some detail:. In this place Tisquantum fell sick of Indian fever, bleeding much at the nose which the Indians take as a symptom of death and within a few days died there; desiring the Governor to pray for him, that he might go to the Englishmen's God in Heaven; and bequeathed sundry of his things to English friends, as remembrances of his love; of whom they had a great loss.
Without Tisquantum to pilot them, the English settlers decided against trying the shoals again and returned to Cape Cod Bay. The English Separatists were comforted by the fact that Tisquantum had become a Christian convert.
William Wood writing a little more than a decade later explained why some of the Ninnimissinuok began recognizing the power of "the Englishmens God, as they call him": "because they could never yet have power by their conjurations to damnifie the English either in body or goods" and since the introduction of the new spirit "the times and seasons being much altered in seven or eight years, freer from lightning and thunder, and long droughts, suddaine and tempestuous dashes of rain, and lamentable cold Winters".
Philbrick speculates that Tisquantum may have been poisoned by Massasoit. His bases for the claim are i that other Native Americans had engaged in assassinations during the 17th century; and ii that Massasoit's own son, the so-called King Philip , may have assassinated John Sassamon , an event that led to the bloody King Philip's War a half-century later.
He suggests that the "peace" Winslow says was lately made between the two could have been a "rouse" but does not explain how Massasoit could have accomplished the feat on the very remote southeast end of Cape Cod, more than 85 miles distant from Pokanoket.
Tisquantum is reputed to be buried in the village of Chatham Port. Because almost all the historical records of Tisquantum were written by English Separatists and because most of that writing had the purpose to attract new settlers, give account of their actions to their financial sponsors or to justify themselves to co-religionists, they tended to relegate Tisquantum or any other Native American to the role of assistant to them in their activities.
No real attempt was made to understand Tisquantum or Native culture, particularly religion. The closest that Bradford got in analyzing him was to say "that Tisquantum sought his own ends and played his own game, … to enrich himself".
But in the end, he gave "sundry of his things to sundry of his English friends". Historians' assessment of Tisquantum depended on the extent they were willing to consider the possible biases or motivations of the writers.
Earlier writers tended to take the colonists' statements at face value. Current writers, especially those familiar with ethnohistorical research, have given a more nuanced view of Tisquantum, among other Native Americans.
As a result, the assessment of historians has run the gamut. Adams characterized him as "a notable illustration of the innate childishness of the Indian character".
As for monuments and memorials, although many as Willison put it "clutter up the Pilgrim towns there is none to Squanto…"  The first settlers may have named after him the peninsula called Squantum once in Dorchester,  now in Quincy , during their first expedition there with Tisquantum as their guide.
Tisquantum rarely makes appearances in literature or popular entertainment. Of all the 19th century New England poets and story tellers who drew on pre-Revolution America for their characters, only one seems to have mentioned Tisquantum.
And while Henry Wadsworth Longfellow himself had five ancestors aboard the Mayflower, " The Courtship of Miles Standish " has the captain blustering at the beginning, daring the savages to attack, yet the enemies he addresses could not have been known to him by name until their peaceful intentions had already been made known:.
Let them come if they like, be it sagamore, sachem, or pow-wow, Aspinet, Samoset, Corbitant, Squanto, or Tokamahamon!
Tisquantum is almost equally scarce in popular entertainment, but when he appeared it was typically in implausible fantasies.
Very early in what Willison calls the "Pilgrim Apotheosis", marked by the sermon of Reverend Chandler Robbins, in which he described the Mayflower settlers as "pilgrims",  a "Melo Drama" was advertised in Boston titled "The Pilgrims, Or the Landing of the Forefathrs at Plymouth Rock" filled with Indian threats and comic scenes.
Where Tisquantum is most encountered is in literature designed to instruct children and young people, provide inspiration, or guide them to a patriotic or religious truth.
This came about for two reasons. First, Lincoln's establishment of Thanksgiving as a national holiday enshrined the New England Anglo-Saxon festival, vaguely associated with an American strain of Protestantism, as something of a national origins myth, in the middle of a divisive Civil War when even some Unionists were becoming concerned with rising non-Anglo-Saxon immigration.
She points to the Indian Head coin first struck in "to commemorate their passing. He is, or at least a fictionalized portrayal of him, thus a favorite of a certain politically conservative American Protestant groups.
The story of the selfless "noble savage" who patiently guided and occasionally saved the "Pilgrims" to whom he was subservient and who attributed their good fortune solely to their faith, all celebrated during a bounteous festival was thought to be an enchanting figure for children and young adults.
Beginning early in the 20th century Tisquantum entered high school textbooks, [aa] children's read-aloud and self-reading books, [ab] more recently learn-to-read and coloring books [ac] and children's religious inspiration books.
Their portraits of Tisquantum's life and times spans the gamut of accuracy. Those intending to teach a moral lesson or tell history from a religious viewpoint tend to be the least accurate even when they claim to be telling a true historical story.
An exception to all of that is the publication of a "young adult" version of Philbrick's best-selling adult history.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Squanto: A Warrior's Tale. Patuxet now Plymouth, Massachusetts.
Mamamoycke or Monomoit now Chatham, Massachusetts. Main article: Ninnimissinuok. Main article: George Weymouth. He lived in Plymouth, where the Archangel neither reached nor planned to.
It was only when they entered Cape Cod Bay, according to Bradford, that they began to consider what desperation they would be in if the original colonists had perished.
The Fortune also brought a letter from London financier Thomas Weston complaining about holding the Mayflower for so long the previous year and failing to lade her for her return.
Bradford's response was surprisingly mild. Hobomok asked what they were, and Tisquantum replied that it was the plague that he had told him and others about.
Oddly in a tale of the wickedness of Tisquantum for claiming the English had control over the plague is this addendum: Hobomok asked one of the settlers whether it was true, and the settler replied, "no; But the God of the English had it in store, and could send it at is pleasure to the destruction of his and our enemies.
That neither he nor any of his should injure or doe hurt to any of our people. And if any of his did hurt to any of ours, he should send the offender, that we might punish him.
Neither Bradford in his answer to the messenger, nor Bradford or Winslow in their history of this event denies that the treaty entitled Massasoit to the return of Tisquantum.
Bradford's order is: 1 Provisions spent, no source of food found; 2 end of May brings shallop from Sparrow with Weston letters and seven new settlers; 3 Charity and Swan arrive depositing "sixty lusty men"'; 4 amidst "their straights" letter from Huddleston brought by "this boat" from the east; 5 Winslow and men return with them; 6 "this summer" they build fort.
Philbrick has Huddleston's letter arrive after the Charity and Swan , and only mentions Winslow's voyage to the fishing grounds, which, if it took place after the arrival of those two vessels, would have taken place after the end of the fishing season.
Bradford noted that in there "were many more ships come afishing". Nickerson claims that the skeleton which washed out "of a hill between Head of the Bay and Cove's Pond" around was probably Squanto's.
Christian Worldview Journal. August 26, Archived from the original on December 8, Focus on the Family Daily Broadcast. May 1, Christian Headlines.
November 19, November 23, The Teaching of Agriculture in the High School. New York: Macmillan Co. Plates after p. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
This book was reissued by the University of Virginia Library in See also Bradstreet, Howard San Francisco: H. Wagner Publishing Co. Bulla, Clyde Robert Squanto, Friend of the White Men.
New York: T. John Billington, friend of Squanto. New York: Crowell. Stevenson, Augusta; Goldstein, Nathan Squanto, Young Indian Hunter.
Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill. Anderson, A. Squanto and the Pilgrims. Chicago: Wheeler. Ziner, Feenie Dark Pilgrim. Philadelphia: Chilton Books.
Graff, Robert; Graff Squanto: Indian Adventurer. Champaign, Illinois: Garrard Publishing Co. Grant, Matthew G. Squanto: The Indian who Saved the Pilgrims.
Chicago: Creative Education. Jassem, Kate Squanto: The Pilgrim Adventure. Mahwah, New Jersey: Troll Associates. Cole, Joan Wade; Newsom, Tom Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Economy Co.
Squanto and the First Thanksgiving. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Carolrhoda Bookr. Rothaus, James R. Squanto: The Indian who Saved the Pilgrims Mankato, Minnesota: Creative Education.
Austin, Texas: Raintree Steck-Vaughn. Dubowski, Cathy East Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Gareth Stevens Publishers.
Samoset and Squanto. Whitehurst, Susan New York: PowerKids Press. Buckley, Susan Washborn Squanto the Pilgrims' Friend.
New York: Scholastic. Hirschfelder, Arlene B. Squanto, ? Mankato, Minnesota: Blue Earth Books. Roop, Peter; Roop, Connie Thank You, Squanto! Banks, Joan Ghiglieri, Carol; Noll, Cheryl Kirk Squanto: A Friend to the Pilgrims.
The Legend of Squanto. Carol Stream, Illinois. Metaxas, Eric The book was retitled Squanto and the Miracle of Thanksgiving when it was republished in by the religious publisher Thomas Nelson.
The book was turned into an animated video by Rabbit Ears Entertainment in It begins with the abduction of 12 year old Tisquantum which the first sentence dates at "the year of our Lord " rather than When he meets the "Pilgrims" he greets Governor Bradford rather than Carver.
The rest is a fictIonalized religious parable which ends with Tisquantum after "Thanksgiving" and before any allegations of treachery thanking God for the Pilgrims.
The Junto. Retrieved September 24, I n. A copy of the letter is also reproduced online by MayflowerHistory. See also Salisbury , p. See also Dunn , p.
See Salisbury , p. Bradford simply notes that he "was entertained by a merchant in London". OPP : Bradford , p. See also Bradford , p.
I: Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Retrieved December 15, The Colonies. New York: Benchmark Books. The Mayflower and the Pilgrims' New World.
New York: G. Putnam's Sons. Archer, Gabriel The book was first published in Purchas , pp. An annotated version is contained in Levermore , pp.
Bradford, William Governor William Bradford's Letter Book. Morison, Samuel Eliot ed. Of Plymouth Plantation, — New York: Alfred A. This is the modern critical edition of the manuscript by William Bradford entitled simply Of plimouth plantation.
In the notes and references the manuscript as opposed to the printed versions is sometimes referred to as OPP. The first book of the manuscript had been copied into Plymouth church records by Nathaniel Morton , Bradford's nephew and secretary, and it was this version that was annotated and printed in Young , pp.
In the decade after the publication by Young, the original manuscript was discovered to be in the library of the Bishop of London in Fulham Palace.
The Massachusetts Historical Society arranged for a longhand copy to be made. When the manuscript was returned to Massachusetts at the end of the 19th century, the Massachusetts legislature commissioned a new transcription to be published.
While the version that resulted was more faithful to the idiosyncratic orthography of Bradford, it contained, according to Morison, many of the same mistakes as the transcription published in The legislature's version was published in A copy is hosted by the Internet Archive.
That version was the basis of the annotated version published as Davis, William T. Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, — New York: C.
Scribner's Sons. A digitized version with most of Davis's annotations and notes removed is hosted at the University of Maryland's Early Americas Digital Archive.
The most amply annotated and literrally transcribed edition of the work is Ford The history of the manuscript is described in the Editorial Preface to the publication by the Massachusetts Historical Society and more fully in the Introduction of Morison's edition pp.
Brereton, John London: Georg. A facsimile reprint with introduction by Luther S. A digitized version with page numbers is also hosted by the University of Michigan.
An annotated version can also be found in Burrage , pp. Brinley, Francis Champlain, Samuel de — Slafter, Edmund F.
Title Voyages of Samuel de Champlain. Translated by Otis, Charles Pomeroy. Boston: The Prince Society.
Cushman, Robert a. A sermon preached at Plimmoth in New-England December 9. Repinted in Cushman, Robert New York: J. Cushman, Robert b. A relation, or, Journall of the beginning and proceedings of the English plantation setled at Plimoth in New England, by certaine English adventurers both merchants and others ….
London: Printed for John Bellamie. Gookin, Daniel Reprint of manuscript. Gorges, Ferdinando A briefe relation of the discovery and plantation of Nevv England ….
Published under the authorship of " Plymouth Council for New England ". This work was published in Purchas , pp. IV— in the —07 reprint it is found volume 19, pp.
The booklet was also reprinted in Baxter , pp. London: Printed by E. Beudenell for Nath. Hosted by the Internet Archive.
Collections of the Maine Historical Society : [v]—xiv, — Hosted online by the HathiTrust. It is also reprinted in Baxter , pp.
Hubbard, William To which is added a discourse about the warre with the Pequods in the year Boston: Printed by John Foster.
This volume was reprinted and annotated as Drake Johnson, Edward London: Printed for Nath: Brooke. A facsiile copy of the work with original page numbers is reproduced in the second volume of Poole, William Frederick, ed.
Andover, Massachusetts: W. Morton, Nathaniel New Englands Memorial. Cambridge: S. A facsimile reproduction is contained in Lord, Arthur, ed.
Boston: The Club of Odd Volumes. An early annotated edition is Davis, John, ed. New-England's Memorial by Nathaniel Morton. Morton, Thomas New English Canaan, or New Canaan.
Amsterdam: Jacob Frederick Stam. New England Canaan of Thomas Morton. Retrieved November 22, Mourt's Relation This work the authors of which are not credited is commonly called Mourt's Relation , and is generally accepted to have been written by William Bradford and Edward Winslow as to the narrative parts and Robert Cushman as to the religious and promotional parts.
An annotated version was first printed in Young , pp. Another annotated version is Dexter, Henry Martyn, ed. Mourt's Relation or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth.
Boston: John Kimball Wiggin. Retrieved December 18, — via Internet Archive. Several different copies of that book are also hosted by HathiTrust.
A version with contemporary orthography and comments was published in connection with the Plimouth Plantation, Inc.
Bedford, Massachusetts: Applewood Books. Pratt, Phineas Purchas, Samuel, ed. Hakluytus posthumus, or, Purchas his Pilgrimes.
London: Imprinted for H. The original imprint was "In fower parts, each containing five bookes". All four volumes parts are hosted online by the Library of Congress The —07 reproduction was printed in 20 volumves one for each "book" : Purchas, Samuel, ed.
Hakluytus posthumus. Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons. Rosier, James A True Relation of the most prosperous voyage made this present yeere , by Captaine George Waymouth, in the discovery of the land of Virginia.
London: Geor. The pamphlet was reprinted in an edition hosted online by HathiTrust. It is reprinted with annotations at Burrage , pp. Smith, John A description of New England: or The observations, and discoveries, of Captain John Smith admirall of that country in the north of America, in the year of our Lord This book is reprinted in Arber , pp.
New Englands trials. London: Printed by William Jones. London: Printed by I. Macmillan published a verbatim version of the first printing with different pagination of this work as well as Smith's autobiography and his Sea Grammar : Smith, John New York: Macmillan.
The Generall History of Virginia is also contained in Arber , pp. The work was twice republished in Smith's life in and and immediately after his death in Advertisement for the unexperienced Planters of New-England, or anywhere.
London: John Haviland. Whitmore, W. John Dunton's Letters from New England. Boston: Printed for the Prince Society by T.
Williams, Roger A key into the language of America: or, An help to the language of the natives in that part of America, called New-England.
London: Printed by Gregory Dexter. A digitized version with modern typeface but pagination is hosted by the University of Michigan.
Winslow, Edward Good newes from New-England: or, A true relation of things very remarkable at the plantation of Plimoth in New-England … Together with a relation of such religious and civill lawes and customes, as are in practise amongst the Indians ….
The work is reprinted, with annotations, in Young , pp. Wood, William New Englands Prospect. London: Tho.
Coates for John Bellamie. A facsimile reproduction, with original pagination, is printed in an edition, together with a new preface and one from a reprinting, by The Society of Boston and hosted by the Internet Archive.
Adams, Charles Francis Three Episodes of Massachusetts History. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. Online via HathiTrust : Multiple copies.
The chapter on Tisquantum is found at pp. Adolf, Leonard A. Summer Arber, Edward, ed. Travels and Works of Captain John Smith. Edinburgh: John Grant.
Bartlett, John Russell, ed. The Complete Writings of Roger Williams. Axtell, James January William and Mary Quarterly.
Bancroft, George Baxter, James Phinney Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine. Haviland for W. Bladen, Volume 2 includes A briefe narration of the original undertakings of the advancement of plantation into the parts of American… by … Sir Ferdinando Gorges … London: E.
Indian Country Today. National Congress of American Indians. Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved June 11, Deborah Parker —.
Former vice chairwoman of the Tulalip Tribes; leading advocate for expansion of the Violence Against Women Act to include protections for Native American women; appointed by Sen.
Local News. The Daily Herald. Josh O'Connor. Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved July 22, Parker, 41, is the new vice chairwoman of the Tulalip Tribes Board of Directors.
Elected in March , she is the only woman on the current board and its youngest member. Tulalip: Josh O'Connor. Board member Deborah Parker did not run for re-election.
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